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Privacy Law

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a legislation that was enacted by the European Union (EU) in 2016 and became effective on May 25, 2018. Its main objective is to enhance the control that EU citizens have over their personal data and to create uniform data protection laws across the EU.

Privacy policies are mandated by law in many regions, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the European Union and the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) in California, USA. The privacy policy is a declaration that specifies how a business accumulates, utilizes, and safeguards personal information. It promotes transparency by informing customers about the management of their personal data and can foster trust between the business and its customers.
While it is advisable to provide a privacy policy to customers as a part of their promise to secure personal data, it may not be a legal requirement in some jurisdictions

Canada has privacy laws that govern the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information by organizations operating in the country. The main federal legislation is PIPEDA, but some provinces have their own privacy laws. These laws aim to protect individuals’ personal information and require organizations to obtain consent before collecting, using, or disclosing it. Individuals also have the right to access and correct their personal information held by an organization. Compliance with these laws is necessary to avoid legal liability and reputational harm. The privacy laws aim to balance privacy rights with legitimate purposes for collecting personal information.

Privacy laws serve several essential purposes, including safeguarding personal information from unauthorized access, use or disclosure, preserving personal freedom by protecting individuals from unwarranted surveillance or monitoring, promoting trust between individuals and organizations, and preventing discrimination by ensuring personal information is not used unfairly. Complying with privacy laws can be complicated, and seeking assistance from a law firm can help individuals and organizations protect their interests.

Email addresses are personal information that may be protected by privacy laws, depending on the jurisdiction and how they were obtained. In the United States, the FTC enforces the CAN-SPAM Act, which regulates commercial emails and some states have their own laws. In the European Union, email addresses are considered personal data under the GDPR, which provides individuals with certain rights. It’s crucial to obtain consent before collecting, using, or disclosing email addresses and have adequate data security measures to maintain the confidentiality of the information.

Businesses in Canada must follow privacy laws like PIPEDA and PIPA, which require them to obtain consent from individuals before collecting, using, or disclosing their personal information. These laws also mandate that businesses take reasonable measures to ensure the accuracy and security of personal information and provide individuals with access to their information upon request. Businesses must have a privacy policy, train their employees on privacy compliance, and report and mitigate privacy breaches. Failure to comply with these laws can result in fines and reputational damage.

Employment Law

Employment law in Canada refers to the laws and regulations that govern the relationship between employers and employees in the workplace, including hiring, firing, wages, benefits, workplace health and safety, human rights, and more. Employment law is regulated at both the provincial and territorial level, with federal laws also applying to certain industries and sectors. Key areas of employment law in Canada include employment standards, human rights, occupational health and safety, and labour relations. It is recommended that both employers and employees seek the advice of a qualified legal professional if they have any questions or concerns about employment law.

Canadian employment laws serve to safeguard the interests of both employers and employees by setting clear guidelines for their rights and obligations in the workplace. These laws aim to promote equitable treatment, safe working conditions, and equal opportunities for all workers. They offer protection against discrimination, harassment, and unjust dismissal, and establish minimum standards for working conditions, such as minimum wage, overtime pay, and vacation entitlements. In addition, Canadian employment laws regulate issues such as workplace safety, employment contracts, and collective bargaining, while also ensuring that employers are not subject to unfair labor practices and that their intellectual property is safeguarded.

An employment contract is an agreement between an employer and an employee that may contain provisions that modify or add to the legal requirements governing the employment relationship. However, an employment contract cannot override certain fundamental legal protections that are provided by law, such as the minimum wage and the right to a safe and healthy workplace. If a provision in an employment contract conflicts with a legal requirement, the legal requirement takes precedence. It’s advisable to seek advice from an experienced employment lawyer if you have concerns about your employment contract or your legal rights as an employee.

Yes, employment law is generally considered a part of civil law. Civil law refers to the legal system that deals with private disputes between individuals, as opposed to criminal law which deals with offenses against society as a whole. Employment law governs the relationships between employers and employees, including issues related to contracts, wages, workplace safety, discrimination, and termination. While employment law can overlap with other areas of law, such as labor law and administrative law, it is primarily considered a subset of civil law.

Canada has five main types of employment laws: Employment Standards, Human Rights, Occupational Health and Safety, Labour Relations, and Employment Equity. Employment Standards laws set minimum employment standards that employers must follow, while Human Rights laws prohibit discrimination and require equal opportunities and a harassment-free workplace. Occupational Health and Safety laws mandate employers to provide a safe work environment and report workplace accidents and injuries. Labour Relations laws govern the relationship between employers and employees in unionized workplaces. Employment Equity laws require employers to address systemic barriers that prevent certain groups from accessing employment opportunities.

If an employee has been fired unfairly, there are several options available to them: they can file a complaint with the Ontario Ministry of Labour to claim notice and severance pay within two years of their termination date, or they can file a complaint with the Ontario Human Rights Tribunal if the dismissal was based on discrimination within one year of the last discriminatory incident.

Alternatively, they can file a civil lawsuit against their employer for wrongful dismissal and seek compensation for lost wages and benefits. A negotiated settlement is also an option. It is important to note that an employee should choose only one legal remedy and not pursue both the Ministry of Labour complaint and a court proceeding simultaneously. If the employee has already filed a complaint with the Ministry and subsequently files a legal proceeding, they have two weeks to withdraw the complaint, or the court proceeding will not proceed.


Losing a litigation case can have various consequences based on the nature and context of the case. The potential results that individuals and businesses could encounter include financial loss due to payment of damages and legal costs, damage to reputation due to negative publicity, court orders or injunctions that can result in additional penalties if not complied with, and the possibility of appealing the decision resulting in further legal costs and delayed resolution. Additionally, a negative outcome may set a precedent with broader implications for the industry or area of law involved.

Litigation refers to the process of resolving disputes through the court system. It involves a legal proceeding between two or more parties, where each side presents their case to a judge or jury, who then decides the outcome of the dispute.

A litigation lawyer is a legal expert specializing in representing clients in disputes that may require legal action or litigation. They handle civil cases that involve disputes between individuals, businesses, or other entities, and are responsible for preparing legal arguments, researching case law, and presenting their clients’ cases in court or during settlement negotiations. They provide guidance and advice to clients throughout the legal process, including during the discovery phase, depositions, and other legal procedures.

Litigation is a legal process that involves resolving a dispute through the court system. It starts with the party who initiates the lawsuit filing a complaint or petition and serving it on the opposing party. The opposing party must then file an answer to the complaint, after which both parties exchange information and evidence through a process called discovery. Throughout the litigation process, either party may file various motions, and the court may hold a pre-trial conference to resolve any outstanding issues before trial. If the case does not settle, it proceeds to trial, after which either party may file an appeal to a higher court.

A vexatious litigant is someone who repeatedly files baseless legal actions against another party with the intention of harassing or causing them harm, rather than seeking legitimate legal remedies. This can be seen as a form of abuse of the legal system and can apply to individuals, groups, or organizations. In some jurisdictions, courts can restrict the ability of vexatious litigants to file lawsuits without first obtaining permission from the court.

A certificate of pending litigation (CPL) is a legal document that alerts potential buyers or lenders that a property is subject to a legal claim. It is filed in the land registry office to prevent the sale or refinancing of the property until the claim is settled. CPL is used to safeguard the interests of a party involved in a legal action and prevent property sale or transfer until the matter is resolved. A CPL is commonly used in foreclosure proceedings by lenders to prevent property owners from selling or transferring property during the pending foreclosure action. It is advisable to seek legal advice from a qualified real estate lawyer when dealing with a CPL in a real estate legal matter.

Real Estate Law

A real estate law clerk typically works for a law firm, government agency, or corporation, and assists lawyers with tasks related to real estate law such as researching legal documents, preparing documents for court proceedings, and drafting legal documents related to real estate transactions. They may also be responsible for attending meetings, maintaining legal files, and keeping track of deadlines.

Law pertaining to commercial real estate involves a variety of topics, including zoning rules, environmental guidelines, and the rights of tenants and landlords, for the purpose of buying, selling, leasing, and managing commercial properties.

It is a body of legal principles established through court rulings and precedents, rather than through statutes or regulations, governs the relationships and rights among property owners, tenants, and the government in real estate common law. This helps to ensure that real estate is used and transferred in an orderly, efficient, and predictable manner.

The transfer of rights to real estate from a buyer to a seller is regulated by laws that oversee the buying, using, and selling of real estate. These include regulations on zoning, taxes, contracts, mortgages, and deeds. To ensure that the purchase and sale of real estate is legal and equitable, all people involved in the process must obey the relevant laws.

Real estate law encompasses a range of legal issues related to the acquisition, sale, transfer, and possession of real estate. It can include topics such as zoning regulations, land use, landlord/tenant relationships and rights, mortgage foreclosure, title conflicts, and disagreements over property lines. Additionally, real estate law may involve issues that arise from renting or leasing a property, such as establishing rental agreements, setting rental rates, and protecting the rights of tenants and landlords.

In Canada, real estate laws are handled on a provincial basis. Each province and territory has distinct laws and regulations that dictate the buying and selling of real estate. To ensure that you are knowledgeable about the regulations in your province or territory, it is essential to be familiar with them prior to engaging in a real estate transaction.

Business Law

The law has a significant impact on businesses in various ways, including how they are formed and registered, contracts formation and enforcement, compliance with employment laws and regulations, protection of intellectual property, taxation, and liability. Companies must follow legal requirements to operate legally and ethically. Failure to comply can result in penalties and legal consequences.

An agreement in business law is a legally binding understanding between two or more parties. It is a crucial aspect of conducting business, as it outlines the terms and conditions of the agreement, including the obligations and responsibilities of each party involved. An agreement can take many forms, including written, oral, or implied, and can cover a range of business activities, such as the sale or purchase of goods, the provision of services, or the licensing of intellectual property. To be valid and enforceable, an agreement must meet certain legal requirements, such as having a lawful purpose, being entered into voluntarily, and being supported by consideration (i.e., something of value exchanged between the parties).

International Business Law is a branch of law that covers international and transnational commercial transactions and activities. It also covers issues such as international trade, commercial transactions, international finance and taxation, foreign direct investment, corporate governance, and international dispute resolution.

The primary benefit of contract law to business is that it helps to protect the rights and responsibilities of all the parties involved in a business arrangement. It enables businesses to clearly define the terms of their agreement and reduces the risk of disputes or misunderstandings. Contract law also establishes the legal framework for enforcing agreements and provides remedies for breach of contract.

No, business law and corporate law are two distinct practice areas. Business law covers topics such as contracts, business formation, and taxation, while corporate law is primarily concerned with the formation and operations of corporations, mergers and acquisitions, and securities law.

No, business liability insurance is not required by law. However, it is highly recommended that business owners have some form of liability insurance in place as it can help protect them from potential financial losses.